Different Phenolic Extracts of Oil Palm Fruits and Caffeic Acid Prevent Palmitic Acid-Induced Lipotoxicity in HepG2 Cells via Improving Mitochondrial Function
Effects of insoluble-bound fraction and caffeic acid on the protein expression levels of P38, COX-2, and iNOS (a) and the relative protein expression levels (b). Protein expression levels were normalized with β-actin, according to grayscale. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3). In Figure 5(b), mean values with different letters are significantly different (). CK: control group; BSA: BSA/NaOH complex solution; PA, PA/BSA complex solution; P38, P38 mitogen activated protein kinases; COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IB: insoluble-bound phenolic fraction; U-IB: UHP-treated insoluble-bound phenolic fraction.
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